Prostate Cancer


An estimated 26,120 men will die of prostate cancer in 2016, this is a 5% drop from the 2015 estimate.  An estimated 180,890 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer this year, which is an 18 percent decline from the 2015 estimates.


Yet a study shows that Metastatic prostate cases have skyrocketed, read more under prostate cancer updates section.


Because of all the advances in the treatments of prostate cancer we have had a steady decline in deaths over the last several years.  Despite this good news, detection rates have fallen since the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommended to delay PSA testing back in May 2012, this has caused more men to be diagnosed in late stage prostate cancer which will limit treatment options.



Prostate cancer is the second biggest cancer killer of men

Prostate cancer can develop in men at 40 if a family member already had Prostate Cancer

All men need to start screening by age 45 if no history of prostate cancer exists

African American men are twice as likely to die of prostate cancer as are White American men

The Prostate Gland is the sex gland

It is the size of a walnut.

It produces prostatic fluid which is one component of semen

A man needs it to father a child, but can live without the gland

A new case is diagnosed every 2.7 minutes, and a life is lost every 19 minutes.

More than two million American men are fighting the disease today.

A man is 35% more likely to develop prostate cancer than a woman is to develop breast cancer.

 

Men who you might have heard of that have had prostate cancer.

Ben Stiller

Ken Griffey Sr.

Louis Gossett Jr.

Roger Moore

Arnold Palmer

Nelson Mandela

Mandy Patinkin

Ryan O'Neal

Joe Torre

Warren Buffett

Bob Dole

Robert DeNiro

Norman Schwarzkopf

Harry Belafonte

Colin Powell

Earl Woods

Phil Lesh

Rudy Giuliani

Jerry Brown

Frank Zappa

Terry Savalas

John Kerry

 

Prostate Gland Changes

Begins to grow larger in most men after age 35 - 40

Enlarged prostate pushes against the urethra and bladder, blocking normal urine flow

 

More than 50% of men ages 60 – 70 and more than 90% of men ages 70 – 90 have symptoms of an enlarged prostate

Non-cancerous changes like benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatitis do not lead to prostate cancer

What is Prostate Cancer

Cancer is the abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells

The cause of prostate cancer is unknown 

Local or early prostate cancer remains close to the prostate gland 

There are usually no symptoms of early prostate cancer

Advanced prostate cancer may spread throughout the body

If prostate cancer spreads, it is usually to the pelvic lymph nodes or to bone

Possible Symptoms

Night time urination

Interrupted stream

Difficulty starting the stream

Slow urinary stream

Painful urination

Blood in the urine

Dribbling / wetting after urination

Blood in ejaculate (semen)

Weight loss

Persistent bone pain (back, ribs, thighs, and hips)

Risk Factors

Being male

Family history of prostate cancer

Getting older – more than 70% of cases diagnosed in men over 65

Being an African American man

Not risk factors

Sexual history

Benign prostate enlargement (BPH)

Vasectomy 

 

Why be Screened

Early stage prostate cancer begins slowly and usually has no symptoms

Annual testing can detect early stage prostate cancer

Prostate cancer can be treated successfully if found early

93% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer survive at least 5 years or longer

Screenings consist of

PSA - Prostate Specific Antigen Blood Test

Measures an enzyme secreted by the prostate gland

Level increases with prostate disease, especially prostate cancer   

Please see tab with United States Preventive Services Task 

Force recommendation on future use of the PSA test

DRE - Digital Rectal Exam

A Doctor inserts a gloved lubricated finger into the rectum to examine the back wall of the prostate where most cancers occur

Prostate Cancer Detection with DRE & PSA

Method of Detection Percentage of Cancer Detected

DRE Alone                        18% 

PSA Alone                         45%

Both DRE and PSA      Over 80%

A high PSA does not automatically mean prostate cancer

Before having a biopsy have a 3 -T MRI first to help pin point where to look

A biopsy is the only way to confirm prostate cancer 

A biopsy can be done on an outpatient basis 

Results back in 7 – 10 days 

A biopsy does not increase the chance that prostate cancer will spread

If the Biopsy Is Positive

Discuss treatment options with your doctor 

Obtain as much information as you can

Involve your family and even friends in discussions 

This will allow you to make an informed decision


Treatment Options


Treatment Options: Surgery

 

  • Surgical removal of the prostate gland

     

  • Called radical prostatectomy

     

  • Often used in early stage prostate cancer

     

Treatment Options: Radiation Therapy

  • Kills cancer cells

     

  • Most often used when cancer has not spread to distant area

     

  • In brachytherapy, radioactive seeds are implanted in the prostate

     

Treatment Options: Cryosurgery

  • Used to treat localized prostate cancer
  • Diseased tissue is flash-frozen by metal probe
  • Less invasive but can damage nerves, bladder, intestines
  • Because the freezing damages nerves, as many as 80% of men become impotent after cryosurgery

     

Treatment Options: Hormone Therapy

  • Surgical removal of testicles, source of male hormones (such as testosterone)
  • Drugs to prevent production or block action of male hormones

     

Treatment: Provence Prostate Cancer Vaccine

  • This vaccine is designed to treat, not prevent, prostate cancer by spurring your body's immune system to attack prostate cancer cells. Immune cells are removed from your blood, activated to fight cancer, and infused back into your blood.
  • Three cycles occur in one month. It's used for advanced prostate cancer that no longer responds to hormone therapy. Mild side-effects can occur such as fatigue, nausea, and fever.

     

Hope for Advanced Cancer
   
XTANDI (Enzalutamide)
XTANDI is FDA-approved to treat a type of advanced prostate cancer that:
No longer responds to a medical or surgical treatment that lowers testosterone, and has spread, or metastasized, beyond the prostate to other parts of the body
The recommended dose of XTANDI is 160 mg (four 40 mg tablets) administered orally once daily
XTANDI can be taken with or without food
XTANDI is usually taken with hormone therapy injections

ZYTIGA
ZYTIGA (abiraterone acetate) is a prescription medicine that is used along with prednisone. ZYTIGA is used to treat men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (prostate cancer that is resistant to medical or surgical treatments that lower testosterone) that has spread to other parts of the body.
The recommended dose of ZYTIGA is 1,000 mg (four 250 mg tablets) administered orally once daily in combination with prednisone 5 mg administered orally twice daily.
Take this medicine on an empty stomach.
Swallow the tablets whole with a full glass of water.

Treatment Options: Watchful Waiting

  • Careful, regular monitoring of PSA levels without immediate treatment, with regular DRE checkups

Pros and Cons of Testing and Treatment

Testing isn’t perfect, false negatives and false positives are possible

While testing can find most cancers, they can also miss some

Older men may not benefit from treatment since prostate cancer often grows slowly in older men

Treatment can cause urinary and sexual problems

 

Prostate Cancer has four stages as shown below

 

*Please read the updates on the recommendation to stop using the PSA test, as you need to understand all sides both Pro and Con*

Learn all you can about Prostate Cancer. The more you know about your cancer and your treatment options, the more confident you'll feel as you make decisions about your treatment. Write down any questions you might have and ask them at your next doctor's appointment. Ask your doctor or other members of your health care team to recommend reputable sources for further information. Some good places to start include the National Cancer Society's Cancer Information Service at 800-4-CANCER (800-422-6237)

 


 

Save Your Males, is a Trade Mark of Peter L. Roberts -.- © Peter L. Roberts, 2011
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